Towns, Cities, Villages and Hamlets

Towns, Cities, Villages and Hamlets

Cambridge

Samuel Lewis's Topographical Gazeetter 1831

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For the Family Historian details of available records can be found on the Cambridge page of GENUKI Cambridgeshire.

Domesday Book Entry

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War Memorial

The war memorials and the men on them have been documented on the Roll of Honour website for Cambridgeshire pages.

CAMBRIDGE is a municipal and parliamentary borough, head of a petty sessional division, county court district and union, the county town and the site of one of the two ancient universities of England, and is on the banks of the Cam or Granta, with stations on the Great Eastern and Great Northern railways, 57½ miles from London by rail, 14 south-west from Ely, 15 west from Newmarket, 38 south from Wisbech and 68½ south-by-south-west from Norwich; it is a hundred of itself in the Western division of the county, rural deanery of Cambridge and archdeaconry and diocese of Ely. The place is one of great antiquity, and during the time of its occupation by the Romans was called "Grantbridge," it was burned by the Danes in 871 and 1010, and in 1088 by Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury, when holding out for Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy. At the time of the Domesday Survey the town contained 373 messages. In 1216 the castle was taken by the insurgent barons; and in 1381 the townsmen were deprived of their charter by Richard II. who held a parliament here, summoned to meet 9 Sept 1388. During the peasants rising of 1381, the rebels entered the town, seized the University records, and burnt them in the market place: in 1643 the town was garrisoned by the Parliament. Three meetings of the British Association have been held here in 1833, 1845 and 1862, and in 1864 the Prince and Princess of Wales visited Cambridge from the 2nd to the 4th of June. The Great Eastern railway now affords direct communication (via Lincoln and Doncaster) with the North of England and Scotland, and the first section of the Great Eastern Railway Company's line from Cambridge to Mildenhall, including the portion from the former town to Fordham Junction, was opened in May, 1884, the second section being completed and opened 1st April, 1885. The Great Northern line from Hitchin and the London and North Western line from Bletchley both terminate here: and the Midland Railway Co. also run trains from London over the Great Eastern line to this town, and thence through St. Ives. Kimbolton, Thrapston and Kettering.

The town, which is irregularly built, consists principally of two main streets, which are continuations respectively of the road from London through Trumpington and of the Hills road. The former, under the names of Trumpington street, Kings parade, Trinity street and St. John street, is continued through the whole length of the town parallel to the general course of the river Cam and contains some of the principal buildings of the town and University. On the left or west side of Trumpington street is the Fitzwilliam Museum, St. Peter's College or Peterhouse, the church of St. Mary the Less, Emmanuel Congregational church, the Pitt Press, St. Catharine's College the Bull hotel, King's College, the Senate House and University Library, Caius College, Trinity College and St. John's College; at the back of this side of the street are Queens' and Clare Colleges and Trinity Hall; most of these colleges have grounds sloping to the river, and several have bridges crossing it and connecting, the college grounds with other grounds on the further side of the river, used by the undergraduates for lawn tennis: the road here, which is known by the name of "the Backs," is lined, with splendid trees; the spaces between the road and the college grounds are covered with turf and altogether present a scene of great sylvan beauty: from this road are footpaths to Granchester and Trumpington and to Coton, and the road past the Observatory to Madingley, all of which afford favourite walks. On the right or east side of Trumpington street is Addenbrooke's Hospital, Pembroke College, St. Botolph's church and Corpus College, the King's parade, Great St. Mary' s (the university) church, St. Michael' s church, the new courts of Trinity College, the churchyard of the removed church of All Saints and the Selwyn or Divinity Schools. The other main street, being the continuation of the Hills road, under the names of Regent street, St. Andrew's street, Sidney street and Bridge street, runs partly parallel to Trumpington street, but converging towards it until it crosses the end of St. John street, and is thence continued by a bridge over the Cam, Magdalene street and Castle street, and then leaving the town, becomes the road to Huntingdon. On the left or west side of this street is the Catholic church of Our Lady of the Assumption and the English Martyrs, the church of St. Andrew the Great, Trinity church, the back of the new courts of Trinity College; and in Bridge street, by the removal of some old houses, the master's lodge of St. John's College and the chapel have been opened to view. On the right or east of this line of streets are St. Paul's church, the University Arms hotel, Emmanuel College, Christ's College, Sidney Sussex College, St. Sepulchre's or the Round church, facing St. John street, St. Clement's church, and across the bridge, Magdalene College, which is the only college situated entire to the north of the Cam.

Several cross streets connect these two main lines of streets and between them lie the extensive grounds of the Botanic Gardens, Downing College and the Market place with its adjuncts. From the junction of Sidney street and Bridge street running east is Jesus lane, on the left or north side of which is Jesus College, and on the south side, nearly opposite, is All Saints' church, and continuing on by the Newmarket road on the right is Christ Church, and on the left the small church of St. Andrew the Less and further east some remains of Barnwell Priory.

In 1207, King John granted the town a charter, authorising it to choose a provost (mayor); under the provisions of the "Municipal Corporations Act, 1835" (5 & 6 Wm. IV. C. 76) the borough was divided 7 Dec. 1835, into five wards, viz.:- East Barnwell, West Barnwell, Market, Trinity and St. Andrew's. The present corporation consists of a mayor, high steward, recorder, ten aldermen, 30 councillors, a town clerk, treasurer, and coroner and the usual officers, representing the city; and two aldermen and six councillors as representatives of the University, elected under the provisions of a provisional order made in pursuance of sec. 52, "Local Government Act, 1888" under sec. 297 of the "Public Health Act, 1875," confirmed by Act 52 and 53 Vict. c. xvi., the Improvement Commissioners ceased to exist Nov. 9, 1889. The borough has a commission of the peace and a separate court of quarter sessions. The parliamentary borough includes in addition, under the Boundary Act, 1868, the greater portion of the parish of Chesterton, and returned two members to Parliament from a very early period until the passing of the "Redistribution of Seats Act, 1885" : when the number was reduced to one.

The town is paved and lighted with gas from the Cambridge University and Town Gas Works, in River lane, erected in 1826, and subsequently enlarged and now including four gasometers, capable of holding 1,300,900 cubic feet of gas; the office is in Sidney street.

The water supply is derived from the works of the Cambridge University and Town Water Works Company, incorporated by Act of Parliament: the water is drawn from springs in the parish of Cherry Hinton and from a well in the chalk in the parish of Fulbourn. In the parish of Cherry Hinton is a reservoir with a capacity of 1,000,000 gallons; the company's office is in Benet street.

Cemeteries

Cemeteries:- The Cambridge Cemetery, on the north side of the Mill road, consecrated in 1848, is an inclosure of about 15 acres: each parish in the borough has a portion of the ground allotted to it and placed under the management of its own officers or servants: near the centre of the ground is a chapel, with a tower and spire added at the sole cost of the late Rev. Dr. Whewell, master of Trinity College, 1841-66. There is also a cemetery on the Histon road, in the parish of Chesterton, under the management of a company, and used principally by Dissenters.

SS. Giles' and Peter's Parochial Burial Ground, off the Huntingdon road, opened in March, 1869, at a total cost of £437 10s. consists of 1a- 2r. 26p. 339 links of ground, including the roadway, and has a chapel and a house for the curator.

Church History

St Matthew's is an ecclesiastical parish, formed June 28, 1870, out of the parish of St. Andrew the Less: the church, in St. Matthew's street, Barnwell built in 1866, is an octagonal structure of brick, opening into transepts on four sides, the roof being surmounted by an octagonal lantern: the eastern arm forms an apsidal chancel and there are north and west porches and a western belfry containing 3 bells: the church affords 580 sittings. The register dates from the year 1870. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £220, with residence and half an acre of glebe, in the gift of the vicar of St. Andrew the Less, and held since 1887 by the Rev. Joseph Hargrove M.A. of Clare College, Cambridge, and surrogate.

St. James's, a wooden church in Ainsworth street, in this parish, is served by the vicar and curates of St. Matthew's.

St. Paul's ecclesiastical parish was formed 4 July, 1845, out of the parishes of SS. Andrew the Great and the Less the church, on the Hills road, is a large edifice of red brick, faced with cut stone, in the Early English style and consists of chancel, nave, aisles, transepts, south porch and an embattled western tower containing a clock and one bell: there are 1,100 sittings, 500 of which are free. The register dates from the year 1845. The living is a vicarage, net yearly value £300, with residence, in the gift of trustees, and held since 1891 by the Rev. Henry Paine Stokes LL.D. of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and surrogate.

St. Barnabas is an ecclesiastical parish, formed in 1889 from the parishes of St. Andrew the Less, St. Paul and St Matthew: the church, in the Mill Road, built in 1878 at a cost of £7,000 and consecrated May 5, 1880, is an edifice of stone in the Early English style, consisting of chancel, nave of five bays, aisles, north porch and a bell cote on the north side containing one bell: it was enlarged in 1887-90, at a cost of £4,662, and now affords 800 sittings. The living is a vicarage, gross yearly value £250, in the gift of the vicar of St.Pauls and held since 1892 by the Rev. Thomas William Thomas, M.A. of St John' s College, Cambridge.

The ecclesiastical parish of St John, taken principally from Cherry Hinton civil parish and including a small part of Trumpington, will be found under Cherry Hinton.

St Philip' s mission church, Mill road, Romsey town erected in 1890 at a cost, including site, of £2,500 as a chapel of ease to St. Barnabas, is an edifice of red brick, consisting of chancel, nave and western porch.

The Rev. Charles Howard, M.A. of Corpus Christi College, has been curate in charge since 1897. The population of St. Barnabas ecclesiastical parish is now (1900) 8,700.

St. John the Evangelist's mission church in Wellington Street, erected in 1874, is a plain edifice of brick, consisting only of nave and a belfry with one bell: there are 200 sittings: the services are conducted by the vicar and curates of Christ Church. Cambridge is included in the Catholic diocese of Northampton. The Catholic church of "Our Lady of the Assumption and the English Martyrs," at the corner of Hills road and Lensfield road and immediately opposite the grounds of Downing College, was erected in 1887-90, at a total cost of over £50,000, and is an edifice of Ancaster and Bath stone, in the Early Decorated style, from designs by Messrs Dunn, Hansom and Dunn, architects, of Newcastle-on-Tyne. The church, built at the sole expense of the late Mrs. Yolande Marie Louise Lyne Stephens, consists of chancel, nave, aisles, ante-chapel, a central embattled tower with pinnacles, and a tower with spire 220 feet high, at the north angle, containing 8 bells, provided in 1896, at a cost of over £1,000; a clock was also erected at the same date: the exterior is enriched with carving and statues, and the windows are stained: there are sittings for 300 persons. Attached to the church is a rectory, arranged as an open quadrangle, and treated in the Early Collegiate style.

The ancient but now desecrated chapel of St. Mary, on Sturbridge Green, a little north of the river Sture and about half a mile east of Barnwell, is a small edifice of the Norman period, consisting only of chancel and nave, but exhibits a good deal of rich workmanship, especially about the chancel arch, and has open timbered Perpendicular roofs: it appears to have belonged to a hospital for lepers.

St. Columba's Presbyterian Church of England, in Downing street, erected in 1890-1, at a cost of £9,000, will seat 500 persons: the organ was the gift of Lady Bruce, wife of Sir G. B. Bruce kt. of Newcastle-on-Tyne: the oak pulpit and chairs were given by Mrs. Gibson.

Eden Baptist chapel, in Fitzroy street, rebuilt in 1874, will hold about 600 persons. Zion Baptist chapel, in the East road, erected in 1877 in place of an earlier structure built in 1837, is of brick with stone dressings, and will seat 950 persons.

The Baptist chapel, St. Andrew's street, erected in 1837, seats about 800 persons. Emmanuel Congregational church, in Trumpington street, built in 1875, at a cost of £13,000, is an edifice of Yorkshire stone, with a lofty tower, and affords about 800 sittings.

There are four Primitive Methodist chapels, all of which are plain structures of brick; that in St. Peter's street was erected in 1841 and rebuilt in 1863, and will seat about 400: the chapel in Panton street, erected in 1866, seats about 500: Newmarket Road tabernacle, erected in 1876, has 550 sittings, and that in Sturton street, built in 1875, about 150.

The Wesleyan chapel, in Hobson street, built, in 1849, is of brick with a stone portico, and will seat about 1,000 persons: the other, in Hills road, erected in 1870, has 800 sittings.

The Friends' Meeting House is at 12 Jesus lane.

The Railway Mission Hall, in Devonshire road, erected in 1889, is a structure of brick, used by various religious denominations, and will seat about 500 persons.

Locale

"The Guildhall, on the Market hill, was erected at various periods, but much enlarged and improved in 1862, at a cost of about £12,000; the principal assembly room, a lofty and spacious apartment, 120 by 52 feet, is admirably adapted for concerts and public meetings, and has been re-decorated in the Italian style by Mr. F. Leach, of Cambridge, and an organ erected at a cost of £1,7900; further alterations and extensions made about 1896 included the erection of municipal offices and a new police court, at a cost of about £13,000: the council chamber is now (1900) being enlarged and the offices extended.

The Cambridge Free Public Libraries, established 1 Mar. 1853, and formally opened June 28, 1855, were removed in June, 1862, to the Guildhall, and now occupy a suite of rooms, consisting of a reading room, built in 1885 from designs by Mr. George McDonell, architect, of London, library, issue office and librarian's apartments: the libraries contain 46,000 volumes and have reference and lending departments: the issue of books during the year 1898-99 from the Central and branch libraries amounted to 110,878 volumes, the number of borrowers being over 3 000: a large number of books are kept for ready reference in the reading room, and for these no written orders are required: the Reference Library includes a good selection of works relating to the county, town and University of Cambridge, and also a Shakespeare Memorial Library, of 1,824 volumes, nearly the whole of which were presented by the late Henry Thomas Hall esq.: the reading room is well supplied with periodicals and with newspapers both daily and weekly: in 1897 a branch library was erected in Mill road, from designs by Mr. Frank Waters; and there are evening reading rooms at Castle End and East Road. The selection of books and management of the library is entrusted to a committee appointed by the Town Council, one half of whom are members of the Town Council and the other private inhabitants of the town.

The Shire Hall, on Castle Hill, is a structure of brick and stone in the Italian style, with a portico supported on columns; the interior comprises two courts, with grand jury and magistrates' rooms and the usual offices, and here also are the offices of the Inspector of Weights and Measures. The assizes for the county, the Isle of Ely and Huntingdonshire and sessions for the county are held here and the magistrates also meet in quarter sessions to transact all magisterial business and matters relating to county affairs. The Police Station, erected in 1879, near the Assize Courts, is a plain building of stone, with a residence for the Chief constable, rooms for unmarried constables, cells for prisoners, stabling and a parade ground.

Her Majesty's Prison and House of Correction, on Castle Hill, in the parish of Chesterton, was erected in 1804, on the site of the old Castle, and has been much improved and enlarged. Prisoners are received here from the counties of Cambridge, Huntingdon, Herts, Suffolk and Essex.

The Theatre Royal, in St. Andrew's street, erected in 1896, is the property of a limited company.

The chief trade of Cambridge consists in supplying the wants of the University, but there is also a considerable trade in corn for the supply of the town and for the London markets, and the town is also the centre of a large and prosperous agricultural district, which it supplies: there are iron and brass foundries, a tobacco manufactory, brick and tile works, breweries, maltings, some large flour mills, and in the immediate neighbourhood several extensive nurseries.

The Market place, in the centre of the town, was greatly enlarged and improved about 1857: there is a daily market, but the principal market is on Saturday, and the corn market is held on the same day in the Corn Exchange, a large building at the back of the Guildhall, near the centre of the town and erected in 1876, at a cost of about £20,000; it contains a statue of Jonas Webb, the eminent breeder of sheep, by the late Baron Marochetti. The Cattle Market, formed by the Corporation, at a cost of about £19,000, on land situated between the station and Cherry Hinton road, was opened in 1885.

Several fairs are held during the year, the principal of which are Midsummer fair, commencing on 24th June and continuing three days, for horses, cattle and earthenware; and Sturbridge fair, commencing on the 25th of September; this fair, founded 31 Elizabeth (1588-9), was formerly one of the largest in England, and beginning on the feast of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary (September 8) lasted six weeks; the fair was held on a large space of ground bounded by the Cam on the north and on the east by a small stream called the "Stour" or "Sture," over which there was a bridge, and hence the name of the fair: the whole area was covered with shops or booths arranged in rows like streets, for various trades and handicrafts, with taverns, coffee houses &c. and there was a great open quadrangle from 240 to 300 feet square, called "The Duddery," especially assigned to woollen drapers and clothes dealers; in the centre of this square a pulpit was erected, from which the minister of Barnwell preached on the two chief Sundays of the fair. This fair has now much fallen off and lasts for one week only: there are cattle fairs three times in the year.

Hobson's Conduit, erected in the Market place in 1614 by the well-known and eccentric carrier, Thomas Hobson, but removed in 1856 to Trumpington street, is a several-sided structure with a niche in each face and a cornice supporting a domical roof which are placed on the royal arms and other adorments: this conduit and the streams running down on either side of St. Andrew's and Trumpington streets are supplied from nine wells at Great Shelford, about 4 miles south-east. In 1865 a handsome drinking fountain was erected on the old site of the conduit in the Market place.

Sturton Town Hall, in the Mill road, built by and the property of a limited liability company, is now used by the Salvation Army and the Working Men's Liberal Club.

The Beaconsfield Club, Gwydir street, is a structure of brick, erected in 1884 by a limited liability company as a working men's club: there were in 1900 500 members: political meetings are also held here. The Henry Martyn Memorial Hall in Market street, adjoining Trinity church, and erected in 1887 at a cost of £4,500, is intended both to commemorate the distinguished career and services of the Rev. Henry Martyn M.A. the first Cambridge missionary to India, and to afford a local habitation for the University Church Missionary Union, the meetings of which are held here weekly, besides furnishing at the discretion of the trustees, a place of meeting for other missionary and religious societies: it comprises a large hall, seating 175 persons, committee room with missionary library, care-taker's apartments, and a room below, now let as a shop.

The premises of the Church of England Young Men's Society are in St Edward's passage; the Cambridge Young Men's Christian Association has premises in Alexandra street, erected in 1870, on a plot of freehold land purchased by the association: these associations each possess a library and reading and class rooms.

The Cambridge Technical Institute, East road, opened in 1894, is a structure of brick, containing ten class rooms and workshops, and was acquired, adapted and furnished from funds provided by the County Council: the institute is a vailable for 500 students and had in 1900 about 350: Mr. Austin Keen, organizing sec.

The Good Templar Mission Hall, Victoria street, erected at a cost of nearly £400, and opened early in 1885, is a building of red brick with Bath stone dressings: the hall will hold 50 persons.

The Working Men's Institute and Mission Room, in Pound hill, Castle end, erected in 1884 at a cost of about £700 is an edifice of red Suffolk brick and Bath stone dressings in the English Domestic style: the large room will hold 300, and attached is a reading room furnished with papers and periodicals, and a small gymnasium.

Railway Stations

Great Eastern Railway, G. Kimm, district superintendent; J. Holdich, station master; William Roper, district goods manager; Francis C. Hayward, goods agent; parcels office, 5 Market hill.

Great Northern Railway, Frederick B. Kelly, district superintendent; Robert Fenn, station master; parcels office, Guildhall street.

London & North Western Railway, Thomas Smith, passenger agent; Edward Thomas Hazlewood, goods agent; parcels office, 4 Market hill.

Midland Railway, James Cairns, agent; parcels office, 18 Market hill.

Barnwell Junction, Henry Leeds, station master.

Sutton's Parcels Express Office, William Bennett Peak agent, 13 Sussex street.

Omnibuses to & from the Railway station, conveying passengers to all parts of the town.

Tramcars about every 10 minutes to & from Railway station to Market hill & omnibuses to & from Railway station to Old Chesterton, Huntingdon road, Mill road, Rock estate & Market hill.

Hospitals and Almshouses.

Addenbrooke's Hospital, in Trumpington street, founded by a bequest of John Addenbrooke, M.D. of St. Catharine's College, and first opened at Michaelmas, 1766, consists of a long pedimented central block with advanced wings, united in front by an open colonnade with balustrading: the hospital was further endowed in 1813, by John Bowtell, a book-binder in this town; and has an income of £1,421 from invested funds, but it derives its chief support from the voluntary contributions of the public. During the years 1864 and 1865 the hospital was, almost rebuilt and greatly enlarged from the designs of Sir M. Digby Wyatt, at a cost of about £15,000: in 1878 additional wards were built at a cost of £3,590; and in 1883 a dormitory was provided at a cost off about £1,200: it has now upwards of 153 beds and affords relief to a large number of out-patients. The hospital has a present income of £6,700. Certificates of attendance on the practice, in this hospital are recognized by the University, by the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, and by the Society of Apothecaries. During term, clinical lectures are delivered weekly by the physicians, and a course of lectures on the principles of surgery. In 1884 the Corporation built a hospital for infectious diseases, on a site purchased for that purpose, in Mill road, Romsey town. The Royal Albert Benevolent Soceties Asylum, Mill road, for decayed tradespeople and others: was established in 1846; and is a structure of white brick in the Gothic style, consisting of twenty-five houses: its finds were augmented in 1868 by a legacy of upwards of £6,000, left by the late Mr. J. Reynolds, of this town; and it is generally supported by members' contributions and donations and subscriptions.

The Priory of Barnwell, dedicated to SS. Giles and Andrew, was first founded in Cambridge in 1092 by Picot, a Norman, for six canons of the Augustinian order, and translated to Barnwell in 1102 by Payn Peverell, standard bearer in the Holy Land to Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, who refounded the priory, increasing the number of canons to 30, and dying in 1112, was buried in the priority church. The last prior, John Badcock, surrendered the monastery Nov. 8, 1539, when the revenues were estimated at £256. The existing remains, situated about 1 ½ miles east of Cambridge market place, consist only of part of the north-west angle of the cloisters, with traces of arcading, and a portion of the boundary wall; the site has at one time been quarried, and more recently has been excavated by the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, but with slight results: it is now laid out with streets.

Newspapers

Cambridge Chronicle & University Journal, 9 Market hill, Miss A. T. Naylor, publisher; published on Friday evening. See advertisement

Cambridge Daily Gazette, Regent house, Regent street & St. Tibb's row, Cambridge Gazette Co. Limited, proprietors & publishers; published daily; neutral

Cambridge Daily News, 48 St. Andrew's street, W. F. Taylor, proprietor & publisher; published daily

Cambridge Express Newspaper Co. Limited, 20c, King street. W. P. Spalding, publisher & managing director; published on Sat.

Cambridge Independent Press, 6a, Market hill, Hatfield & Co. publishers; published on Fri.

Cambridge Review, 30 Trinity street, Elijah Johnson, Publisher; published every Thurs. during term.

Cambridgeshire & Eastern Counties Weekly Gazette, Regent house, Regent street & St. Tibb's row, Cambridge Gazette Co. Limited, proprietors & publishers published Fri.; neutral

Cambridgeshire Weekly News. 48 St. Andrew's street, W. F. Taylor, proprietor & publisher; published on Fri.

Schools

Perse Grammar, Hills road, founded by Stephen Perse M.D. senior fellow of Caius College, by will dated 27 Sept. 1615, in which he devised certain property in charge to his trustees to purchase divers grounds & tenements, to be applied, amongst other purposes, to that of erecting & establishing, within three years (if possible) after his decease, a convenient house capable of containing 100 scholars, to be used for a Free Grammar school; the school is now conducted under a scheme approved by the Queen in Council, 9 Aug. 1873, & is divided into a senior & a junior department; the school is under the management of a governing body of 15 persons, of whom three are nominated by the Council of the Senate of the University of Cambridge, three by Gonville & Caius College & six by the Town Council of Cambridge, the remaining three being Cooptative governors: in 1842 the old school-house was taken down & new buildings, comprising a school-room & houses for the master usher, erected in Free School lane; these buildings were afterwards enlarged, 50 as to hold about 200 boys, but in 1889-90, new buildings of red brick with stone facings were erected, at a cost of £10,000, on a new site in Hills road, from designs by Mr. W. M. Fawcett M.A., F.S.A. architect, of Cambridge, & these are available for 300 boys; Herbert C. Barnes-Lawrence M.A. headmaster & 13 assist,}\sub } masters.

Perse High (girls), Panton house, Panton street, partially supported from funds set apart by the governors of the Perse trust in 1881; Miss Kate H. Street, head mistress.

The Leys School, in the Trumpington road, was established in 1874, by the Wesleyan Methodist body, for the purpose of affording a high-class education under Evangelical auspices to the sons of ministers or laymen of all denominations: boys are admitted between the ages of 10 & 19, & are prepared for the Universities, professional or commercial pursuits: the estate, which is freehold, comprises an area of about 21 acres, & the buildings include four blocks, comprising a dining-hall, dormitories, masters houses & c. & a large science building, opened in 1893 by Lord Kelvin, containing an exceptionally complete & convenient suite of laboratories, lecture-rooms, museum & c. The school is managed by a governing body of 25 persons, of whom the president of the Wesleyan Conference is (ex-officio) chairman; Sir George Hayter Chubb, vice-chairman & treasurer; Percy W. Bunting, sen. hon. sec.; Rev. James Oswald Dykes D.D. & J. H. G. McArthur esq. Cambridge members; Rev. William T. A. Barber M.A., B.D. head master; T. P. Walker M.A.; J. C. Isard M.A.; C. H. French M.A.; Rev. James Hope Moulton M.A.; G. Osborn M.A.; F. H. Marseille Ph.D., M.A.; E. E. Kellett M.A.; G. E. Green M.A.; St. J. B Wynne-Willson; H. Burgess B.A.; H. Brownsword M.A.; A. P. Gadnett; J. H. Hayes B.A.; C. F. Hadfield B.A.; W. H. Balgarnie B.A.; A. H. Mann Mus.D.; E. W. Naylor Mus.D. & H. Inwards, assistant masters; bursar, J. C. Isard M. A.; medical officer, Robert Nicholas Ingle M.D. & Arnold C. Ingle M.A., M.D

King' s College Choristers', West rd. Newnham, Benjamin Benham M.A. master.

St. John's Choristers', 70 Bridge street, George Edmund Lister, master.

Cambridge Training College for Women Teachers, Wollaston road; this institution provides professional training for women who have already received a thoroughly good education; Miss M. Punnett B.A.Lond. principal.

Cambridge School of Art, Guildhall, established in 1858 Philip Hall, master.

Abbey (girls & infants), River lane, Newmarket road, erected in 1854, for 250 children & enlarged in 1894, for 315; average attendance, 172 girls & 100 infants; Miss Liza Welch, mistress; Miss Mary Payne, infants' mistress.

Barnwell National (boys, girls & infants), School House lane, East road, erected for 819 children; average attendance, 295 boys, 192 girls & 208 infants; Henry Coram master; Miss Anastasia Pratt, mistress; Miss Sarah Chandler, infants' mistress.

Higher Grade (boys), Paradise street, erected in 1871, for 350 boys; average attendance, 300; John Wallis, master.

Higher Grade (girls & infants), Eden street, erected in 1873, enlarged in 1885, for 300 children; average attendance, 259; Miss Blair, mistress; Miss A. Bond, infants' mistress.

Higher Grade (St. Barnabas') (girls & infants), St. Barnabas road, erected in 1877, for 215 children; average attendance, 123; Miss E. M. B. Ong, mistress.

Higher Grade (girls & infants), Lower Park street, erected in 1877, for 200 children & since enlarged for 375 children; average attendance, 286; Mrs. Lucy Evans, head mistress.

King Street (boys), higher grade (date of erection not known), for 200; average attendance, 120; Arthur W. H. Meaken B.A. master.

King Street (girls & infants) (date of erection not known), for 225 children; average attendance, girls 102 & infants 65; Mrs. Susannah Meaken, mistress & Miss Emily Parnell, infants' mistress.

Newnham (mixed & infants), erected for 227 children; average attendance, 175; Miss Britton, mistress; Miss K. Press, infants' mistress.

Occupation Road National (infants), erected in 1875, for 130 children; average attendance, 81; Miss Flora Beamiss, mistress.

St. Giles' (girIs), Pound hill, erected for 219 children; average attendance, 150; Miss Amelia Briggs, mistress.

St. Giles' (infants), Albion row (date of erection not known), for 172 children; average attendance, 145; Miss Elizabeth Picken, mistress.

St. John's (mixed), Wellington street, erected in 1873, for 160 children; average attendance, 107; Miss Elizabeth Flitton, mistress; Miss E. Stanley, assistant mistress.

St. Matthew's (boys) (Higher Grade), York street, erected in 1882, for 250 children; average attendance, 145 James Mullett M.A. master.

St Matthew's (girls), Norfolk street, erected in 1887, for 200 children; average attendance, 130; Miss Edith Bentley, mistress.

St. Matthew's National (infants), Norfolk street, erected in 1872 for 298 children; average attendance, 300; Mrs. Hannah Bailey, mistress.

St. Matthew's (infants), Sturton street, erected in 1885, for 132 children; average attendance, 108; Miss Alice Bryant, mistress.

St. Paul's (boys & girls), Russell street, Hills road, erected for 500 children; average attendance, 350; Henry John Buckwell M.A. master; Mrs. Buckwell, mistress.

St. Paul's Infant, Union road, erected for 190 children; average attendance, 141; Miss Mary Anne Sutton, mistress.

St. Giles' (boys), Honey hill, erected in 1808, for 349 children; average attendance, 176; Ebenezer Bowman, master.

St. Philip's (boys), St. Philip's road, erected in 1894 & enlarged in 1898, for 463 children; average attendance, 415; George Flavill, master.

St. Philip's, Catherine street (girls & infants), erected in 1886 & enlarged in 1890, for 450 children & again enlarged in 1894, for 570; average attendance, girls 274 & infants 295; Miss Eleanor Robson, girls' mistress; Miss C. J. Hodgkinson, infants' mistress.

Catholic, Union road, erected for 150 children; enlarged in 1894-5 at a cost of £500 for an additional 55 children; average attendance, 108; Miss Margaret Ellis, mistress.

British (boys, girls ,& infants), Fitzroy street, erected for 654 children; average attendance, 249 boys, 180 girls & 167 infants; Frederick Howard Bird M. A. master; Miss Paull, mistress; Mrs. Aves, infants' mistress.

British (mixed), New street, opened in 1885, for 350 children & enlarged in 1893 for 420 children; average attendance, 350; William Thomas Haynes, master.

University

The origin of this University has been the subject of much controversy: it is generally stated that Sigebert, King of the East English (629-35), was the first person of influence who fostered learning in this place: to this, Bede says, he was guided, as to many other works of piety, by Felix, the first Bishop of Dunwich, who presided over the churches of East England from A.D. 630 to his decease in A.D. 638. During the Danish invasions, about 871, the town was burnt, and the progress of learning here arrested; but the University was re-established by Edward the Elder in 915; and a further revival took place in 1110; Henry III about 1230, granted a charter to the University, but its most important privileges were bestowed by Edward III in 1333: Letters Patent were granted by Henry VIII in 1534, and a charter by Queen Elizabeth in 1561; and later the University was incorporated by Act of Parliament, in 1571 (13 Eliz. c. 29): its statutes have been revised on several occasions, and were altered to a very considerable extent under the " Cambridge University Act, 1856" (19 and 26 Vict. c. 88): new statutes were confirmed by the Queen in Council, 31 July 1858, under the " Universities' Act, 1858" (21 and 22 Vict. cc. 57 and 58), and the statutes of the University were further revised by the " Oxford and Cambridge Universities' Act, 1877" (40 and 41 Vict. c. 48), and confirmed a new by Her Majesty in 1882. James I in 1614, conferred on the University the privilege of sending two members to Parliament, the right of election being vested in the members of the Senate: all Doctors of Divinity, Law and Physic, and Masters of Arts or Laws having their names upon the register, have votes in this assembly. By Order in Council, 13th May, 1869, power was given to the University to admit as students, and to confer degrees on, persons who are not members of any college or hall.

The University of Cambridge is a society of students in all and every of the liberal arts and sciences, incorporated, as stated, by Queen Elizabeth, under the title of "The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of the University of Cambridge." This corporation is a union of seventeen Colleges or Societies, and of certain Masters of Arts and students, who, though not members of any colleges, are members of the larger corporation of the University, and entitled to share in all privileges within its precincts, other than those which are accessible only to members of college. Both this larger corporation of the University and the smaller ones of the colleges are devoted to the study of learning and knowledge, and are intended to promote the better service of the Church and State. All the colleges have been founded since the first year of Edward I. and are maintained by the endowments of their respective founders and benefactors. Each college is a corporation governed by its own statutes, but all are controlled by the statutes of the University.

The Senate consists of all persons of the degree of Master of Arts and of any higher degree who retain their names on the books (excepting those whose first degree has been that of B.D. under the now repealed " Ten year" statute of Queen Elizabeth), and no new statute can become law without the assent of this body.

The Electoral Roll consists of certain official persons, including the heads of Colleges and Professors, and of all members of the Senate who live within certain limits of the University and its neighbourhood for 120 days in the year.

The Council of the Senate, established by 19 and 20 Vic. cap. 88, consists of the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, four heads of Colleges, four Professors, and eight other members of the Senate, chosen from the electoral roll by the Senate. No measure can be submitted till it has obtained the sanction of the Council.

The several degrees of the University are conferred upon such persons as are duly presented to the Vice-Chancellor by their respective college officials after satisfying the University Examiners or Professors respectively in the several examinations and exercises required by the statutes of the University, after a statutable residence and a course of instruction, partly under college tutors and partly under the University Professors & c. The college authorities are responsible for the behaviour of students within the walls of their respective colleges; and the Proctors for their conduct outside the colleges and in the University at large. The University Terms are three in number and include 227 days at least: October or Michaelmas Term begins on the 1st October and ends on the 19th December; Lent Term begins on the 8th January and ends not later than the Thursday next before Easter Day; and Easter Term begins no earlier than the Tuesday next after Easter Day and ends on June 24th.

University Buildings

The Senate House, in Trumpington street, erected at a cost of about £20,000, is a structure of Portland stone, surrounded by pilasters of the Corinthian order, supporting a frieze and cornice and finished with a balustrading, each front being also relieved by a Decorated pediment; six ornamental stone vases, completing the original design, were placed above the east and south fronts in 1891, at the cost of the late Samuel Sandars esq. M.A. of Trinity College. The interior, which is ornamented with columns of the Doric order, is 101 feet in length, 42 in breadth, and 32 in height: the galleries are of Norway oak, richly carved, and the floor is of black and white marble; at the east end are statues of Charles, Duke of Somerset, by Rysbrack, and of the Right Hon. William Pitt, by Nollekens: at the upper, or west end, is the Vice-Chancellor's chair, with seats on each side for the proctors, heads of colleges, doctors of the several faculties and noblemen. Here degrees are conferred and other public business of the University is transacted. Members of Parliament for the University are also elected here, the Vice-Chancellor being the returning officer.

The Fitzwilliam Museum, in Trumpington street, and perhaps the finest of modern Classical structures in this country, was erected in 1837-47 from the designs of George Basevi esq. architect, who being accidentally killed by a fall at Ely Cathedral (October 16th, 1845.), the work was completed by Charles R. Cockerell esq. R.A. the principal front exhibits a grand portico of eight Corinthian columns, the order being continued on each side and flanked by advanced wings, inclosing loggia, the whole supporting a cornice and pediment; the wings and loggia are relieved by niches, containing in bold relief figures of the Muses: the Museum was founded and endowed by Richard Viscount Fitzwilliam, who died in 1816, and bequeathed to the University his splendid collection of books, paintings, drawings and engravings, together with the dividends arising from £100,000 South Sea Annuities for the erection of a museum for their reception; to the above has been added a valuable collection, presented by the late Mr. Mesman to the University: the majority of the paintings in this collection are of the Flemish and Dutch schools; the library contains a collection of engravings, etchings, drawings and illuminated manuscripts and coins (including Col. Leake's collection), which makes the museum, in this respect, one of the most important in Europe: in 1850 John Disney LL.D. presented a valuable collection of ancient marbles, eighty three in number; and in the same year John Kirkpatrick esq. presented a collection of thirty four casts of antique statuary; but these are now in the galleries of the Fitzwilliam Archaeological Museum. The museum has been further enriched by many other valuable presents of paintings, prints, books & c. especially twenty-five water-colour drawings by the late J. M. W. Turner, presented by the late John Ruskin esq. M.A. in May 1861; and thirty valuable modern paintings given by Mrs. Elizabeth Ellison, of Sudbrook Hall, Lincolnshire, in 1863; in 1872, by the will of the late Rev. R. E. Kerrich, the museum acquired seven paintings, 200 volumes of books, together with many portfolios of valuable engravings in 1876, the late A. A. Vansittart esq. presented 17 pictures, including fine examples of Ruysdael, Guercino, Marieschi & c.; other benefactors have been the Rev. J. W. Arnold D.D. in 1859, and the Rev. C. Leasingham Smith in 1878, their gifts including works by Hogarth, Salvator Rosa, Pierre de Molyn, Cooper & c. Fifteen paintings on panel, illustrative of Early Italian Art, were purchased in 1893; these include a Pisan or Sienese Crucifixion of about 1200 A.D. and fine altar retables by Simone Memmi and Cosimo Rosselli. The general management is intrusted to a syndicate, composed of the Vice-Chancellor and eight other members of the Senate. The museum is open to the public every day but Friday (when it is reserved for members of the University and friends accompanying them) from 10 to 4 from the 1st of September to the 30th of April; from 10 to 6 from the 1st of May to the 24th of June; and from 10 to 5 from the 25th of June to the 31st of August.

The museum of Archaeology, Little St. Mary lane, was opened in May, 1884, and consists of two distinct departments, viz.:- the Museum of Classical Archaeology, an extension of the Fitzwilliam Museum, and the Museum of General and Local Archaeology, founded in 1883. The former occupies four galleries containing over 600 casts, arranged chronologically, each gallery representing, so far as practicable, a marked period in the history of art, and the collection, as a whole, is second only to the famous Museum of casts at Berlin. The latter occupies the four southern galleries, and includes the museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, now known as the Antiquarian Museum and Library, which contains a collection of Roman antiquities from Litlington, Shefford and Great Chesterford. The Ethnological section comprises the important collections formed in the South Sea Islands by Sir Arthur Gordon G.C.M.G. (now Lord Stanmore) and A. P. Maudsley esq. M.A. Baron Anatole von Hugel and others. In 1891 the Foster bequest added over 4,000 specimens of stone, metal, pottery and glass, and the collection of Saxon pottery and bronze ornament is how exceedingly rich. To the Antiquarian Museum nearly 7,000 objects, mostly from Cambridge and the Eastern Counties, have been added since 1884.

The Museum of Geology, now placed in a suite of rooms under the north wing of the University Library, consists of the original collections of Dr. Woodward, founder of the Professorship, bequeathed by him to the University in 1727, together with the large additions made by the different professors since that time, and especially by the Rev. Adam Sedgwick M.A., F.R.S. professor from 1818 to 1873. The collections are very large, and are chiefly arranged in drawers rather than under glass. For educational purposes and research no other Geological museum equals this, and for general interest it is hardly surpassed even by the National Museum at South Kensington. Amongst other things is a collection made by Agostino Scilla, a distinguished Italian painter, who, in 1670, published a work on fossils, the illustrative sketches for which, made by him, as well as the original fossils themselves, are preserved here. Besides the Palaeontological series there is a fine collection of rocks, and of specimens prepared for the microscope and for illustrating the mode in which the earth's crust has been built up and modified from time to time. There are also many objects illustrating economic geology, the various phosphates exactly assigned to the locality and geological horizon from which they were procured, and an extensive series of polished marbles. A new museum of brick and stone is now (1900) in course of erection, from plans by T. G. Jackson R.A F.S.A. at the north-east corner of the Downing College grounds, at an estimated cost of £44,000, of which some £28,000 will be realised from the fund subscribed in honour of Professor Sedgwick; the remainder is provided for by large sums of money previously presented to the University for the same purpose, viz. a share of the £23,000 subscribed in 1835 for the erection of Cockerell' s building and £4,000 of the Woodwardian trust money laid out upon it.

The Museums and Lecture Rooms form an extensive range of buildings on the site of the old Botanic Garden, on the north side of Downing street, and include a connected series of museums and lecture rooms for the use of the professors, comprising a museum of zoology and comparative anatomy, physiological and morphological class-rooms, botanical museum and herbarium; surgical museum; mineralogical museum; engineering laboratory, and workshops; optical and astronomical lecture room, chemical laboratory, Cavendish laboratory of experimental physics & c. The museums (which include the Medical and Natural Science Laboratories) are situated in Free School lane and are open to the general public from 9 to 6 daily. The new Chemical Laboratory, in Pembroke street, was erected in 1887, from designs by Mr. J. J Stevenson, based on a plan proposed by Professor Liveing. The ground floor contains laboratories for elementary work and three lecture rooms, the largest room seating 240 and the two others, 60 each; and in addition a preparation room and specimen room: on the mezzanine floor is the private room and laboratory of the professor of chemistry, and a room for organic analysis: on the first floor are the advanced students' laboratories, a laboratory for organic chemistry, balance room, lecture room, and a private room for the Jacksonian Professor: higher up is the library, and one or two rooms for special researches. The buildings for the study of anatomy, in Corn Exchange street, consist of dissecting rooms, anatomical museum and lecture rooms. The University Library, which can be shown to have been already in existence during the first half of the 15th century, occupies that part of the two quadrangles which lies between the Senate House and Trinity Hall. It has been enriched at different times by royal and private benefactors, including King George I. (1715), Thomas Rotherham or Scot, Archbishop of York (1484), Dr. Richard Holdsworth, master of Emmanuel College (1849), Henry Lucas (1664), Tobias Rustat (1666), John Hacket, Bishop of Lichfield (1670), William Worts (1709), John Manistre (1826), Henry Bradshaw, librarian (1886), John Couch Adams, Lowndean professor (1892) and Samuel Sandars M.A. Trinity College: it now contains upwards of 500,000 volumes (being thus third among the libraries of the United Kingdom); the University spends £5,000 a year upon it; and it is continually increased by the provisions of the Copyright Acts, under which the University may claim a copy of every new work published in this country: the building was very considerably enlarged in 1866, at an expense of £14,500, and further enlarged in 1889, at a cost of £16,000, of which £10,000 was derived from a bequest by the late John Hancock esq. some time fellow of St. John's College. The Divinity School, probably the oldest University building in the town, originally stood on the north side of the Schools quadrangle, under the present catalogue room of the University Library, with which it was incorporated in accordance with a report of the library syndicate in the year 1856; in the same year the Rev. W. Selwyn D.D. of St. John's College, Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity, set apart £700 a year from the income of his chair as an augmentation of the stipend of the Norrisian professorship, proposing at the same time, if the Norrisian professorship should meanwhile become vacant, to continue the same contribution during his tenure of office for the furtherance of theological study in such a way as might seem best: in accordance with this provision a trust was formed in 1864 to receive and administer the sums so set apart with a view to the erection of a Divinity school, and shortly before Professor Selwyn's death (April 24, 1875), when the accumulated fund amounted to nearly £10,000, a site opposite St. John's College was purchased by the University at a cost of £3,750; the building, erected in 1878-9, is in the Gothic style of the 15th century, from the designs of Mr. Basil Champneys M.A. architect, and contains a large lecture room capable of holding about 300 students, a small lecture room, library and four rooms for the professors. In Nov. 1890, the library was augmented by the addition of the library of the late Dr. Lightfoot, Bishop of Durham, bequeathed by him to the Divinity school. The University Pitt Club, Reading and News Rooms, established in 1827, and now occupying rooms at 7 3/4 Jesus lane, is open daily from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. to members of the University only: it is well supplied with all the principal newspapers and periodicals, London and provincial, and has a good selection of useful and standard works. The Pitt Press, or University Printing Office, on the west side of Trumpington street, and erected in 1831-3 is an embattled structure of three stories in the Perpendicular style, from designs by Mr. Edward Blore, architect, and surround three sides of a square: the principal front is releved by buttresses rising into crocketed pinnacles above the parapet, and in the centre is a large square tower, with a canopied oriel over the entrance, an open embattled parapet and crocketed pinnacles at the angles: the foundation stone was laid in November, 1831, by the Marquess Camden, who also opened the building 30th April, 1833: the University printers are Mr. J Clay M.A. and Mr. C. F. Clay M.A. The Cambridge University Union Society, established in 1815, averages about 4,560 members, 3,220 of whom are life members: the buildings, in Bridge street, are of red brick in the Gothic style of the 14th century, from designs by Alfred Waterhouse esq. R.A.: an addition, containing the library, smoking and tea rooms, was erected in 1884 from plans by the same architect, at a cost of £8,000: the library comprises 30,000 volumes and there are several rooms supplied with all the principal newspapers and periodicals of the day: debates take place every Tuesday evening during term: the society is managed by a committee and certain officers, including a president, who are elected terminally.

The Cambridge Philosophical Society, established in 1819, was incorporated by charter in 1832, and is managed by a council, consisting of a president, three vice-presidents, treasurer and three secretaries, who are elected in October in each year, that being the anniversary of the society; the meetings are held once a fortnight during term at the New Museums.

The Botanic Gardens, south of the town, between the Hills road and the Trumpington road, occupy an area of about 21 acres: the garden is well arranged and contains an extensive collection of indigenous and foreign plants: in the centre is a piece of ornamental water, and the whole garden is surrounded by trees and shrubs, arranged in such a manner as to afford the most complete facility for reference: the hot-houses are spacious, and contain a variety of curious and valuable exotics and in 1891 the plant houses were considerably enlarged, at a cost of over £5,000: the whole is under the management of a syndicate, of which the Vice-Chancellor is chairman: the public are admitted free daily, Sundays excepted, and to the hot-houses between the hours of 2 and 5 p.m.; but strangers will readily obtain admission at any reasonable hour by making application to the curator at the gardens.

The University Observatory, erected in 1822-24, at a cost of nearly £20,000, on the Madingley road, and surrounded by tastefully laid-out grounds, is an edifice of Bath stone, on a plinth of granite, in the Classic style, from designs by Mr. J. C. Mead, of London, and consists of a centre with east and west wings and a pedimented porch carried on pillars of the Grecian Doric order: the principal instruments include a mural circle of 8 feet diameter; there is also a transit clock by Hardy and a very fine transit circle by Troughton and Simms, having a telescope of 8 inches aperture by Cooke and two divided circles of 3 feet in diameter: in 1835 a telescope of nearly 12 inches aperture and 20 feet focal length, with an object glass, by Cauchoix, of Paris, was presented to the Observatory by his Grace the Duke of Northumberland, and is placed under a revolving dome 27 feet in diameter; in 1891 a large equatorial telescope, 29 feet focal length and 25 inches aperture, was presented by the late Mr. Newall, of Gateshead, and in 1899 a telescope of novel form was erected for photographic purposes, with a triple object glass of 12 ½ inches aperture and 19¼ feet focal length, by Cooke, corrected for both visual and photographic work and mounted by Grubb: the Observatory is open to members of the University and their friends daily (Sundays excepted) from 12.30 to 1.30; no strangers are admitted, except in company with a member of the University.

The University Racquet and Fives Courts, in Portugal street, were built in 1892 by a company, at a cost of £7,000, and comprise two racquet courts, BRIDGE is a municipal and parliamentary borough, head of a petty sessional division, county court district an

The University Boat Club contends annually with Oxford in a race, which takes place at Easter on the Thames between Putney and Mortlake: up to the year 1900 Oxford has won 32 races and Cambridge 24.

The Colleges

Colleges are a purely English institution, and although now, for the most part, forming the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, are as an institution not so ancient as the universities. In the earlier times of the universities, the students lived in a way not unlike that of the " non ascript" or unattached students of the present day. After a time, however, halls or hostels began to be formed in which the students lived a more coenobitic life, and by degrees the existing colleges, as one by one they came into existence, superseded the halls, and for some centuries afforded a collegiate life and regime to every member of the two great Universities. In Oxford the difference between a college and a hall is that the colleges are corporate bodies, holding and managing their own property and endowments, the corporation consisting (with only three exceptions in Oxford and none in Cambridge) of a Head, a body of Fellows and a body of Scholars, the Head and Fellows being the governing body. The halls, on the other hand, are not corporate bodies, and any endowments they possess are held in trust for them by the University. In Cambridge there are no halls proper: Clare and Catharine have within the last few years each taken the names, as they already possessed the status, of a college: and Trinity Hall only retains its original name for the obvious reason that a Trinity College already exists. The heads of all the colleges in Cambridge are called Masters, with the exception of those of King's and Queens', who are called respectively Provost and President.

In most of the colleges the Head is elected by the Fellows: but the Master of Trinity is appointed by the Crown, and the Master of Magdalene by the possessor of the Audley End Estate. The Fellows and Scholars are elected by the Heads and Fellows of the colleges after competitive examinations. Fellowships were originally tenable for life on the condition of celibacy: this condition, however, has been much modified, and marriage does not vacate a Fellowship held in conjunction with a professorship, while in some colleges provision is made for marriage conditionally on the acceptance of a college living within a specified time. Scholarships are usually tenable for about four or five years. The undergraduate members of colleges are called Fellow Commoners, Advanced Students, Pensioners and Sizars. There are Sizarships in some of the colleges, and numerous Scholarships and Exhibitions are open to undergraduates.

[Extracts from Kelly's Directory - Cambridgeshire - 1900]

All Saints - Holy Sepulchre - Holy Trinity - St Andrew the Great - St Andrew the Less - St Benedict - St Botolph - St Clement - St Edward
St Giles - St Mary the Great - St Mary the Less - St Michael - St Peter

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